Introduction to TCP/IP Model

TCP/IP_Model| Networking Blog

TCP/IP model is a condense version of OSI reference model. It comprises of 4 layers:-

  1. Process / Application Layer
  2. Host-to-Host Layer
  3. Internet Layer
  4. Network Access Layer

Process / Application Layer :  TCP model integrates Application, Session and Presentation layer to define one layer called Process / Application layer in TCP model. This layer is concerned with node to node communication and also controls user interface of the application.

Host-to-Host Layer: It works equivalent to OSI’s Transport Layer, defining protocols for setting up level of transmission service for applications. It also tackles issues like end to end communication setup and also checks for reliable error free delivery of data. Packet sequencing and handling is also looked after by this layer.

tcp_suite | Networking Blog

Protocols at each Layer of TCP/P protocol suite

Internet Layer: This layer is similar to OSI’s Network layer which designates protocols for logical transmission of data or packets over the network. It also assigns address to the packet by giving them IP address and also handles routing of packets among multiple networks.

Network Access Layer: This layer is similar to combine layers of OSI’s Data link and Physical layer which maintains data exchange and between host and network. This layer also oversees hardware address and defined protocols for physical transmission of data.


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